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Towards Independence

Page history last edited by Mr. Hengsterman 9 years, 4 months ago




Key Factors in The Move Toward Independence (1770-1775)



Constitutional factor--Colonists demanded the right to examine the purpose for each law passed, refusing to obey those that raised revenue.,


Social conflicts factor

Lower class discontent resulted from limited franchise, established churches, inheritance laws.

Upper class colonists welcomed protest support from lower classes at first, but became alarmed with mob violence. England now had two groups of protestors to deal with.




Seeds of Democracy Ascribed vs Achieved status

" Americans colonists are a most rude, depraved and degenerate race and it is a mortification to use
that they speak English and can trace themselves from that stock"
British Customs Clerk


   Reactions and Responses from the Crown (1767-1776)

Charles Townshend  threatened American colonial traditions of self-government and imposed revenue duties on a number of items necessary to the colonies. 


Townshend Acts (1767-1770)

New duties placed on a number of goods (paper, paint, glass, and tea) led to protests against the collection of customs duties (The revenue from which of the following acts was to be used to pay the salaries of royal governors) 


#1 Samuel Adams led radicals in urging a renewed boycott of British goods and provided an issue to unify American sentiment

#2. Boston Massacre resulted in deaths of four persons (1770) when soldiers sent to protect agents were attacked by a mob.

#3. By 1770 all duties except that on tea were repealed. Tea tax was seen as symbolic of Parliament's supremacy





Tea Act (1773The Tea Act was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain. Its principal overt objective was to reduce the massive surplus of tea held by the financially troubled British East India Company in its London warehouses and to help the struggling company survive.







Boston Tea Party (1773) Mobs turned back tea ships in several ports and dumped shiploads into Boston Harbor. 


Coercive (Intolerable) Acts (1774) 

Closed Boston Harbor and allowed for quartering of troops in colonists' homes





First Continental Congress (1774)

A convention of delegates called in response to the passage of the Intolerable Acts had punished Boston for the Boston Tea Party.


Set up Continental Association to prohibit importation of English goods and later the export of American goods to England.




"In America chickens squawked and tar kettles bubbled as violators of
The Association were tarred and feathered." 



In an attempt to support the East India Tea Company, Parliament removed the tax on tea and allowed it to be sold in the colonies through its own agents, not American retailers. British tea was cheaper, but to buy it was to pay a Townshend duty.







Give me Liberty, or Give me Death!" is a quotation attributed to Patrick Henry from a speech he made to the Virginia Convention. It was given on March 23, 1775at St. John's Church in Richmond, Virginia, and is credited with having swung the balance in convincing the Virginia House of Burgesses to pass a resolution delivering the Virginia troops to the Revolutionary War. Among the delegates to the convention were future US Presidents Thomas Jefferson and George Washington. Reportedly, those in attendance, upon hearing the speech, shouted, "give me liberty or give me death!"



MAY 1775  The Second Continental Congress (1775 to 1781) was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that started meeting on May 10, 1775, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, soon after warfare in the American Revolutionary War had begun. It succeeded the First Continental Congress, which met between September 5, 1774 and October 26, 1774, also in Philadelphia. The second Congress managed the colonial war effort, and moved incrementally towards independence, adopting the United States Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. By raising armies, directing strategy, appointing diplomats, and making formal treaties, the Congress acted as the de facto national government of what became the United States. With the ratification of the Articles of Confederation, the Congress became known as the Congress of the Confederation.


July 1775 The Olive Branch Petition was adopted by the Continental Congress in July 1775 in an attempt to avoid a full-blown war with Great Britain.  


 Thomas Paine, Common Sense—idea of republicanism, the language of the pamphlet ; “Declaration of Independence”—Thomas Jefferson, John Hancock 


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